小能豆

如何列出模块中的所有功能?

javascript

我的系统上安装了一个 Python 模块,我想看看其中有哪些可用的函数/类/方法。

我想help在每个方法上调用该函数。在 Ruby 中,我可以执行类似以下操作:ClassName.methods获取该类上所有可用方法的列表。Python 中有类似的东西吗?

例如:

from somemodule import foo
print(foo.methods)  # or whatever is the correct method to call

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2024-07-04

共1个答案

小能豆

在 Python 中,你可以使用内置dir()函数help()函数可以

你可以使用以下方法dir()`help()探索

1. 列表功能

要列出模块中定义的所有函数、类和变量,可以使用dir()

import somemodule

print(dir(somemodule))

2. 获取详细信息help()

To get detailed information about a specific function, class, or method, you can use the help() function:

from somemodule import foo

help(foo)

Example Usage

Let’s say you have a module named mymodule with the following structure:

# mymodule.py

class MyClass:
    def method1(self):
        pass

    def method2(self):
        pass

def foo():
    pass

def bar():
    pass

You can explore this module as follows:

import mymodule

# List all attributes, functions, and classes in the module
print(dir(mymodule))

# Get detailed help on a specific function
help(mymodule.foo)

# Get detailed help on a specific class
help(mymodule.MyClass)

# List all methods of a class
print(dir(mymodule.MyClass))

# Get detailed help on a specific method
help(mymodule.MyClass.method1)

Listing Methods of an Instance

If you want to list the methods of an instance of a class, you can do the following:

# Create an instance of MyClass
obj = mymodule.MyClass()

# List all attributes and methods of the instance
print(dir(obj))

# Get detailed help on a specific method of the instance
help(obj.method1)

Putting It All Together

Here’s a complete example of how you might explore a module and its contents:

# Example module: mymodule.py
class MyClass:
    def method1(self):
        """This is method1."""
        pass

    def method2(self):
        """This is method2."""
        pass

def foo():
    """This is foo."""
    pass

def bar():
    """This is bar."""
    pass

# Script to explore the module
import mymodule

# List all attributes, functions, and classes in the module
print("Module attributes and methods:")
print(dir(mymodule))

# Get detailed help on a specific function
print("\nHelp on foo:")
help(mymodule.foo)

# Get detailed help on a specific class
print("\nHelp on MyClass:")
help(mymodule.MyClass)

# List all methods of a class
print("\nClass methods of MyClass:")
print(dir(mymodule.MyClass))

# Get detailed help on a specific method
print("\nHelp on MyClass.method1:")
help(mymodule.MyClass.method1)

# Create an instance of MyClass
obj = mymodule.MyClass()

# List all attributes and methods of the instance
print("\nInstance attributes and methods of obj:")
print(dir(obj))

# Get detailed help on a specific method of the instance
print("\nHelp on obj.method1:")
help(obj.method1)

This approach should allow you to explore the contents of any module or class in Python, similar to how you would in Ruby.

2024-07-04